Streptomycin; TET: Tetracycline; GEN: Resistance rates of Cambodian campylobacter s from chicken to ciprofloxacin reached Archawakulathep et al. Consequence of finding of fluoroquinolone in imported basa catfish from Vietnam was the stop of sale of tons of seafood in the US by the U. Motivation was the emerging of resistance to enrofloxacin in Campylobacter causedby treatment of chickens and turkeys with this antimicrobial agent in poultry production and the risk for human health.
Recently, five genomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Vietnam were sequenced. Some of these isolates had a cluster of genes of the type-6 secretion system T6SS which play roles in pathogen-pathogen and host-pathogen interactions. T6SS is associated with virulence, cell adhesion and cytotoxicity toward erythrocytes.
Another study gave a detailed characterization of Vietnamese Campylobacter isolates . Resistance of Campylobacter to several antibiotics was determined phenotypically and by molecular biological methods.
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A limitation was the low number of isolates. In a study concerning the regional risks and seasonality in travel-associated campylobacteriosis in East Asia including Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam the risk was estimated to be infections per , Swedish travelers per year. This is the highest value in the world apart from the Indian subcontinent with 1, cases per , travelers per year .
In an evaluation study of gastrointestinal pathogens in stool samples from diarrheic patients the usefulness of a multipanel pathogen identification system was shown. It represented a sensitive, specific and easy approach as an alternative to classical detection methods . Often, investigations were related to human infections especially in children of young age in big cities like Hanoi, Vientiane, Phnom Penh or Ho Chi Minh City. Knowledge about the prevalence of Campylobacter in humans and poultry and the antibiotic resistance is much better in Vietnam than in Laos or Cambodia.
However, there exist no data about the prevalence of Campylobacter in milk or water sources, although Campylobacter contamination in both could be a risk for humans. Moreover, the common habit of consumption of unpasteurized milk in children under 5 year of age underlines the relevance of this potential route of transmission in these countries. However, food safety awareness and concepts are existing .
Surveillance and collaborative research within the South East Asian countries can clarify the epidemiology of foodborne infections like campylobacteriosis in humans. It can be also important for control of bacterial contamination in livestock and food of animal origin. Prerequisite of improvement of food safety and as a consequence of human health is the introduction of modern diagnostics.
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PCR assays are rapid, reliable and comparably cheap, but especially in Laos molecular techniques are practically not in use yet and there is a substantial lack of laboratory infrastructure and equipment in all three countries. An increasing problem is antibiotic resistance in bacteria like Campylobacter.
In the EU, antibiotic use of antibiotics as growth promotors in food animals was completely banned several years ago. National monitoring and control programmes for antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens have not been established in ASEAN countries yet [30,]. Limited data on the amount of antibiotics used in the farming industry exist, because there is no effective control, policy or regulation.
In summary, national surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in knowledge about the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in developing countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Establishment of at least one National Reference Laboratory with modern equipment and well trained personnel in each country is recommended.
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November 28, Published: December 20, Gastroenterol Hepatol Open Access 8 3: Download PDF. Go to Articles on Campylobacter in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Thirty one publications were retrievable in Pubmed and other database concerning Campylobacter in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam between and Campylobacter in humans An overview about papers concerning Campylobacter in humans in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia is given in Table 1.
Gentamicin a control group; b C. Clin Microbiol Rev 28 3: MMWR Rep BMC Infect Dis EFSA J PLoS One 8 3: J Microbiol Med 62 pt Epidemiol Infect 8: J Food Prot 74 Emerg Infect Dis 19 7: Epidemiol Infect 6: Skirrow MB Campylobacter enteritis: Br Med J 2 PLoS One 8 Epidemiol Infect 9: EcoHealth 10 4: Epidemiol Infect APMIS 6: Am J Trop Med Hyg 92 5: Pediatr Infect Dis J Epidemiol Infect 7: J Vet Med Sci 69 8: Schwan P Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp.
SLU Examensarbete. J Vet Med Sci 73 3: Otto P CambodiaCase Study: Negombo, Sri Lanka, pp.
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